Present simple tense oziroma present simple čas

uporabim v teh jezikovnih situacijah:

1. NAVADE in RUTINE

Med navade in rutine najpogosteje umeščamo dejanja, ki jih bodisi posamezni ljudje ali tudi velike skupine ljudi pogosto ponavljamo.

She is never late for school.

Does Jack read a lot?

I get up at 6 o’clock in the morning.

Americans like country music.

I don’t wash my hair every day.

She often goes to the library.

Tom doesn’t play sports.

Do men often drink?

2. ZNANSTVENE in SPLOŠNO

SPREJETE RESNICE

Trditve, ki jih potrjuje znanost, pa tudi stereotipi, miti in druge trditve, ki jih ljudje jemljemo kot veljavne, resnične.

Takšne trditve lahko tudi zanikamo ali po njih sprašujemo.

Sun sets in the west.

Do children like chocolate?

Water boils at 100 degrees.

Alcohol warms the body.

Slovenians are hard-working people.

Dogs don’t like cats.

Does water have taste?

3. STANJE ali POLOŽAJ,

V KATEREM SEM

Stanje opišemo s pomožnim glagolom -BE (biti) in z glagoli, ki izražajo stanja (state verbs).

I am from England.

We aren’t students.

Bill doesn’t know the answer.

Do you know Alice?

Is it sunny?

He doesn’t understand.

4. IZRAŽANJE PRIHODNOSTI

(timetables, buses, concerts...)

Present simple čas uporabimo kot prihodnji čas, ko imamo v mislih urnike letal, vlakov in ostalih prevoznih sredstev.

Rabimo ga tudi, ko govorimo o tem, kdaj se začne ali konča prireditev, na primer koncert, gledališka oziroma kino predstava, pa tudi športna tekma.

Podobno velja za osebne urnike.

They leave by train on Friday at ten.

The airplane lands at 5:30 p.m.

We have an English class next Thursday.

Jane doesn’t begin school until September.

The concert starts at 20:30.

The film finishes in 2 hours.

Do we have a maths exam tomorrow?

Za lažjo predstavo, present simple stavke razdelimo v 2 skupini:

I'm from London.

She isn't thirsty.

Are they friends?

Yes, they are. / No, they aren't.

You like dogs.

She doesn't live here.

Do they speak English?

Yes, they do. / No, they don't.

Zakaj stavke v present simple času delimo

na skupino s pomožnim glagolom -BE (am, is, are)

in na skupino z ostalimi glagoli (eat, read)?

Present simple tense stavke delimo v 2 različni skupini zato, ker pomožni glagol -BE (biti) pri present simple nikalnih stavkih in present simple vprašanjih ni samo polnopomenski glagol (sem, si, je, sva, sta, smo, ste, so).

Pomožni glagol -BE rabimo tudi kot pomožni glagol, s katerim lahko zanikamo ali postavljamo vprašanja.

Vse ostale glagole v present simple času zanikamo, oziroma po njih sprašujemo, s pomožnim glagolom -DO (do, does).

Obe skupini glagolov je mogoče zanikati tudi na druge načine, na primer z NEVER.

V present simple času ima glagol BE dve funkciji:

1. Glagol BE je POLNOPOMENSKI GLAGOL (ima pomen),

v present simple času ima tri oblike: am, is in are.

Oblika glagola BE je odvisna od tega,

kateri zaimek postavimo predenj:

I, you, he, she, it, we in they.

Pomeni glagola BE v slovenščini so:

sem, si, je, sva, sta, smo, ste in so.

2. Glagol BE je POMOŽNI GLAGOL,

njegov namen je, da pomaga. Kako?

Pomaga pri ZANIKANJU in POSTAVLJANJU VPRAŠANJ.

Pri zanikanju pomaga tako,

da nase veže angleško besedo za zanikanje NOT:

I am not a student. / I'm not a student.

She is not here. / She isn't here.

You are not a vet. / You aren't a vet.

Pri postavljanju vprašanj glagol BE pomaga tako,

da ga postavimo na začetek vprašanja (DA / NE vprašanja)

ali takoj za vprašalnico (who, where, when, why...)

pri informativnih vprašanjih.

DA / NE VPRAŠANJA IN ODGOVORI:

Am I late? Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.

Are they friends? Yes, they are. / No, they aren't.

Is she ill? Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.

INFORMATIVNA VPRAŠANJA:

Where am I?

When is the concert?

How are you?

PRESENT SIMPLE TRDILNA OBLIKA

PRAVILA ČRKOVANJA PRI GLAGOLU

Oblika glagola v present simple trdilni obliki

(ko ne zanikamo ali sprašujemo)

je odvisna od tega,

kateri zaimek postavimo pred glagol. 

Če uporabimo zaimke I, you, we in they,

glagol uporabimo v obliki,

ki je povsem enaka osnovni obliki.

I work in Glasgow.

You like pizza.

We drink tea.

They go for walks.

Pri rabi osebnih zaimkov he, she ali it 

(tretja oseba ednine), glagol dobi končnico:

1. Večini glagolov dodamo končnico -s:

I work in London. He works in Bath.

I eat pasta. It eats cat food.

I book holidays. She books theatre.

I play chess. He plays cards.

2. Glagolom, ki se v osnovi končajo na:

-o, -ss, -x, -ch in -sh, dodamo -es:

I do nothing. He does everything.

I miss her. She misses me.

I fix cars. He fixes boats.

I wash the dishes. She washes the car.

I watch films. He watches sport.

3. Glagolom, ki se v osnovi končajo

na soglasnik in -y, -y spremenimo v -i,

nato dodamo še -es:

I often cry. She never cries.

I often fly to Paris. He never flies there.

 

PRESENT SIMPLE NIKALNA OBLIKA

RABA POMOŽNEGA GLAGOLA -DO

POMOŽNIK -DO POTREBUJEMO DA:

1. Lahko zanikamo glagole in postavljamo vprašanja.

2. Vemo, da se nahajamo v present simple času.

Present simple glagol zanikamo tako,

da pri rabi osebnih zaimkov I, you, we in they

pred glagol postavimo

pomožni glagol -DO in nikalnico NOT.

Pri rabi osebnih zaimkov he, she ali it,

pred glagol postavimo pomožnik -DOES in nikalnico NOT.

Pri zanikanju ima glagol osnovno obliko

oziroma izgubi končnico -s ali -es.

I do not work. I don’t work.

You do not like it. You don’t like it.

We do not drink. We don’t drink.

 

She does not work. She doesn’t work.

He does not like it . He doesn’t like it.

It does not drink. It doesn’t drink.

 

PRESENT SIMPLE VPRAŠALNA OBLIKA

RABA POMOŽNEGA GLAGOLA -DO

Vprašanja postavljamo tako,

da pomožni glagol -DO oziroma -DOES

postavimo na začetek vprašanja (DA / NE vprašanje),

ali takoj za vprašalnico (when, where, who...)

pri informativnih vprašanjih.

Ne pozabimo,

glavni glagol v vprašanju zapišemo v osnovni obliki.

DA / NE vprašanja in odgovori:

Do I like books?
Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

Do you live in the UK?
Yes, you do. / No, you don’t.

Do we dance?
Yes, we do. / No, we don’t.

Do they drive a Ford?
Yes, they do. / No, they don’t.

Does he drink coffee?
Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.

Does she run? 
Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.

Does it eat?
Yes, it does. / No, it doesn’t.

Informativna vprašanja:

Why do I like soap operas?

Where do you come from?

When do we board the plane?

How do they like our country?

Who does he visit every day?

What does she need?

How much does it cost?

TABELA

OSTALI GLAGOLI